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How to Get Citizenship in Portugal: A Comprehensive Guide


portugal how to get citizenship

Portugal, with its stunning landscapes, rich history, and high quality of life, has become an attractive destination for many seeking to gain European citizenship. Whether you’re looking to retire, invest, or simply enjoy a new lifestyle, obtaining Portuguese citizenship can be a rewarding process. This guide will walk you through the various pathways and requirements for acquiring citizenship in Portugal.

Why Choose Portuguese Citizenship?

Before diving into the process, it’s essential to understand the benefits of becoming a Portuguese citizen:

  1. Freedom of Movement: Portuguese citizens enjoy the right to live, work, and travel within the European Union.
  2. Quality of Life: Portugal offers a high standard of living, excellent healthcare, and a favorable climate.
  3. Safety and Stability: Portugal is known for its political stability and safety, making it an ideal place for families and retirees.

Pathways to Portuguese Citizenship

There are several pathways to obtain Portuguese citizenship, each with its own set of requirements:

1. Citizenship by Descent

If you have Portuguese ancestry, you may be eligible for citizenship by descent. To qualify, you need to prove that one of your parents, grandparents, or in some cases, great-grandparents was a Portuguese citizen.


  • Birth certificate of the Portuguese ancestor
  • Proof of the family relationship (e.g., marriage certificates, birth certificates)
  • Proof that the ancestor did not lose Portuguese citizenship

2. Citizenship by Marriage

Spouses of Portuguese citizens can apply for citizenship after three years of marriage. The marriage must be recognized in Portugal, and the couple must provide evidence of a genuine relationship.


  • Marriage certificate
  • Proof of three years of marriage
  • Proof of ties to the Portuguese community (e.g., knowledge of the Portuguese language)

3. Citizenship by Naturalization

Naturalization is a common pathway for those who have legally resided in Portugal for an extended period.


  • Legal residence in Portugal for at least five years
  • Proficiency in the Portuguese language
  • Clean criminal record
  • Proof of integration into the Portuguese community (e.g., employment, social connections)

4. Citizenship by Investment

Portugal offers a Golden Visa program, which allows investors and their families to obtain residency, with a pathway to citizenship after five years. This program is ideal for those who can make a significant financial contribution to the country.

Investment Options:

  • Real estate investment (minimum €500,000)
  • Capital transfer (minimum €1 million)
  • Job creation (minimum 10 jobs)
  • Investment in scientific research or cultural heritage

5. Citizenship for Sephardic Jews

Descendants of Sephardic Jews who were expelled from Portugal during the Inquisition can apply for citizenship. Applicants must prove their Sephardic Jewish heritage and connection to a Sephardic community.


  • Proof of Sephardic Jewish heritage
  • Certificate from a recognized Jewish community in Portugal or abroad
  • Evidence of a connection to Portugal (e.g., surname, language)

The Application Process

Regardless of the pathway you choose, the application process generally involves the following steps:

  1. Gather Documentation: Collect all necessary documents, such as birth certificates, marriage certificates, proof of residence, and investment records.
  2. Submit Application: Submit your application to the Portuguese Immigration and Borders Service (SEF) or the local Civil Registry Office.
  3. Background Check: Authorities will conduct a background check to verify your criminal record and ensure all information is accurate.
  4. Language Test: If applicable, take a Portuguese language test to demonstrate your proficiency.
  5. Decision: Once your application is processed, you will receive a decision. If approved, you will be invited to take an oath of allegiance to Portugal.


Obtaining Portuguese citizenship is a gateway to numerous benefits, including the right to live and work in the EU, access to excellent healthcare and education, and the opportunity to experience the rich culture and beauty of Portugal. Whether through descent, marriage, naturalization, investment, or heritage, each pathway has its unique requirements and advantages. By understanding the process and preparing thoroughly, you can navigate the journey to Portuguese citizenship with confidence.


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